Large, heavy bodied minnow with arched back small triangular head tapering to blunt snout; first ray of the dorsal and anal fins stout, serrated spine; small, subterminal and protrusible mouth contains no teeth; two pair of barbels on the upper jaw; body color brassy green on top grading to bronze or gold on sides with yellowish white belly; typically covered with large, round scales; not the problem in Florida it is reported to be in other states.
Occurs only in the Apalachicola and Ochlockonee rivers; widely distributed elsewhere in North America; first introduced to the United States in the late 1800’s. Native range Europe.
Occurs throughout Apalachicola and Ochlockonee river systems in variety of habitats ranging from steep natural banks to gentle banks, dike fields, sand disposal areas, rocky outcrops, and backwater sloughs with or without submergent vegetation; not nearly as abundant in Florida as most other states, possibly due to our short and mild winters.
Spawning Habitats: Typically spawn when water temperatures range between 65 and 75oF; small groups gather in shallow, heavily vegetated areas that warm rapidly; one or more males pursue a female as eggs and milt are released, but no parental care given; eggs sink and adhere to vegetation and debris on the bottom; egg production from 50,000 to 2 million.
Feeding Habits: Feed by sucking up bottom silt, and selectively removing insect larvae, crustaceans, snails, and other small food items; adult carp are omnivorous, consuming both plant and animal foods; organic debris may also be an important component of the diet.
Age and Growth:
Few live longer than 12 years in the wild, but in captivity have lived 47 years; growth varies considerable, but generally rapid for the first few years.
Not listed as a sport fish in Florida, but a powerful fighter equal to most sportfish; ranks third in popularity behind Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout in Europe; require heavy tackle; best baits include dough balls, canned corn, bread crusts, and worms fished on the bottom; no bag or size limits.
Bony but if properly prepared excellent eating; boiling and smoking are the two primary methods of cooking them.
State record is 40.56 pounds caught in the Apalachicola River; IGFA world record was caught in France weighed 75 pounds, 11 ounces:
The common carp is native to Asia, and has been introduced to every part of the world with the exception of the Middle East and the poles. The original common carp was found in the inland delta of the Danube River about 2000 years ago, and was torpedo-shaped and golden-yellow in colour. It had two pairs of barbels and a mesh-like scale pattern. Although this fish was initially kept as an exploited captive, it was later maintained in large, specially built ponds by the Romans in south-central Europe (verified by the discovery of common carp remains in excavated settlements in the Danube delta area). As aquaculture became a profitable branch of agriculture, efforts were made to farm the animals, and the culture systems soon included spawning and growing ponds. The common carp’s native range also extends to the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Aral Sea.
Both European and Asian subspecies have been domesticated. In Europe, domestication of carp as food fish was spread by monks between the 13th and 16th centuries. The wild forms of carp had reached the delta of the Rhine in the 12th century already, probably also with some human help. Variants that have arisen with domestication include the mirror carp, with large, mirror-like scales (linear mirror – scaleless except for a row of large scales that run along the lateral line; originating in Germany), the leather carp (virtually unscaled except near dorsal fin), and the fully scaled carp. Koi carp (錦鯉 (nishikigoi) in Japanese, 鯉魚 (pinyin: lĭ yú) in Chinese) is a domesticated ornamental variety that originated in the Niigata region of Japan in the 1820s. They also invaded the Great Lakes in 1896 when the area near Newmarket, Ontario, flooded and allowed them to escape into the Holland River.
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